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SOSIALISASI EDUKASI - SERTIFIKASI USAHA PARIWISATA TAHUN 2014

Posted by Heru Nusantara on November 14, 2014 at 11:10 PM Comments comments (3)

SOSIALISASI EDUKASI

SERTIFIKASI USAHA PARIWISATA TAHUN 2014

Dalam rangka meningkatkan kualitas pelayanan kepariwisataan dan meningkatkan produktivitas usaha pariwisata,

Sertifikasi Usaha dilaksanakan oleh LSU Bidang Pariwisata. LSU adalah lembaga mandiri yang.....

...Perbedaan sistem lama dan baru .... Read More (download)



Revenue management PRICING OUT SOCIAL

Posted by Heru Nusantara on May 21, 2014 at 10:40 PM Comments comments (0)

By: Adam Leposa Hotel and Motel Management


Members of Magnuson Worldwide, such as the Bay Pointe Inn Shelbyville, in Michigan, can earn brand rebates based on social scores.

Members of Magnuson Worldwide, such as the Bay Pointe Inn Shelbyville, in Michigan, can earn brand rebates based on social scores.

 

A hotel’s social reputation can have a big impact on a guest’s willingness to book, and hotel operators are tying the information they can glean from social networks into their revenue management strategies. Hotel Management spoke with Tom Magnuson, CEO of hotel services organization Magnuson Worldwide, on how social sentiment analysis and revenue management are becoming linked.


“We try to find what is the best data that’s going to give us a sound foundation for a good pricing strategy, and utilizing review data is going to be one of the key anchors of our revenue management strategy going forward,” Magnuson said.


While Magnuson said revenue management in hotels has not been quantified to the extent it has in other sectors, such as retail, incorporating analysis of social media can provide another valuable signal on which revenue managers can base their judgments. “I’ve found that there is no certifiable science of revenue management, just as there is no certifiable science in public relations,” he said. “It’s largely guided by a collection of personalized ad hoc decision points. The best strategies are pretty basic.”


Magnuson Worldwide aggregates content from hundreds of review sites for each of its hotels, Magnuson said, assigning an overall rating from zero to five for each site. The company then factors those ratings into an overall score on a 100-point scale.


Analyzing social content can help hotel operators understand what guests think about their properties, and price accordingly, Magnuson said. “We advise a hotel first on what the public sentiment is about the hotel, and what to do about it,” he said. “Once we have information on what the customer thinks of us, then we act on that; this will guide our pricing. You can generally gain at least a 10-percent premium.”


Social sentiment analysis can also be useful in driving brand compliance, Magnuson said. For Magnuson hotels that hit a 65 percent overall score on social sites, Magnuson Worldwide will offer a 10-percent rebate on brand fees; for hotels with a 75-percent score, the rebate rises to 15 percent. “It creates a virtuous circle where better service and physical care of the property drives up scores, which leads to more money rebated, which hoteliers can invest in the property to improve guest satisfaction even more,” Magnuson said.


Social sentiment analysis can also help hotels focus on what’s truly important.


“Review content is generally the only way we’ve seen the whole social content explosion monetized for this particular industry,” Magnuson said. “It can be kind of a dogging feeling to go, ‘Oh my, what is my Twitter strategy? Do I need a social media manager?’ Hotels do better if they can reduce their focus on extraneous distractions to focus on what people think about their service so that they can do better.”

Hotel towel dilemma: Replace or reuse?

Posted by Heru Nusantara on March 24, 2013 at 1:10 AM Comments comments (0)

By Katia Hetter


hotel towels photo sustainable-hotels-towels-story-top_zps309a5699.jpg

More than 75% of U.S. hotels have towel and linen reuse programs, according to an industry survey


(CNN) -- Dan Condon believes in recycling. Just not when it comes to his hotel towels.

Condon composts when he's at home in Boulder, Colorado. He eats local, organic and fair-trade food and drives a Honda CR-Z hybrid sports car.

You might call him green.

Except he's not so green when he travels for his work at an education nonprofit and stays in a hotel, which happens about 10 weeks per year. There, he uses a new towel every day. And don't try to bribe him with a drink or dessert coupon to get him to reuse the same one.

"I could care less about rewards for environmentally conscious behavior unless it's miles," Condon wrote in an e-mail.

If hotels can't convince a hybrid-driving recycling enthusiast like Condon to go green while traveling, how can they possibly convince everyone else?

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That's the problem of hotels trying to "green" your hotel stay. After guests have paid a pretty penny for a night at the inn, even the most environmental guests may want to treat themselves to fresh towels every day and those little bottles of sweet-smelling shampoo.

Despite the fact that most people describe themselves in surveys as environmentally conscious and as preferring green products, there's a big gap between consumer attitudes and consumer behaviors when it comes to going green, said Michael Giebelhausen, a marketing professor at the Cornell University School of Hotel Administration.

"It can be nice to have fresh towels, and not doing so is a sacrifice," said Giebelhausen, whose current research focuses on the impact of hotel sustainability programs on guest satisfaction. "Participating requires some effort, and there's some cost to be incurred on the part of the consumer."

Guests who go green are happy

Nearly 90% of hotel guests are offered the chance to do something sustainable during their stays, and about two-thirds will participate, according to Giebelhausen's analysis of 2011 data from the J.D. Power and Associates North America Hotel Guest Satisfaction Study.

Those guests who participate in a hotel's green programs report that they are more satisfied with their stays than guests who do not participate. Participating in a hotel's sustainability program provides "a feeling that it was good to be green, it made them feel good about themselves, and that translated to the service provider," Giebelhausen said.

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"These guests, who are ostensibly receiving a lower level of service, report being more satisfied overall with their stay."

There's just one catch: Guests who don't participate in voluntary sustainability programs reported the lowest levels of satisfaction with their hotel stays. "One explanation for these findings is that when people don't live up to their ideals, and vice versa, this affects how satisfied they are with the entity that presented them this 'moral dilemma,'" Giebelhausen said.

Sustainability is becoming the norm

It makes business sense for hotels to go green: Increasing sewage rates, stricter water use requirements and more recycling options are all convincing hotels to reduce their water and energy costs, said hotel industry veteran Pat Maher, an environmental consultant and "green guru" for the American Hotel & Lodging Association.

More than 75% of U.S. hotels have linen and towel reuse programs, 59% have guest or internal recycling programs, and 46% have a water-saving program, according to a 2012 American Hotel & Lodging Association survey of its members.

They also have "back of the house" programs that include low-flow shower heads, faucets and toilets; energy-efficient light bulbs, high-efficiency appliances and other efforts. Some are required by local governments; others just make business sense.

That translates into real dollars: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has found that hotels and other lodging facilities use more than 510 trillion BTU of energy annually at a cost of more than $7.4 billion. That energy use generates 54 million metric tons of greenhouse gas emissions, equal to the emissions from more than 11 million passenger vehicles, according to the agency.

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The EPA reports that the lodging industry could save $745 million annually by reducing energy use by 10%. That translates to 60 cents more revenue per room night at limited-service hotels and $2 at full-service hotels.

Annoyed that the hotel's bottom line benefits from your sacrifice? Some hotels are trying to make water-saving behavior pay for their guests. Participating Sheraton Hotels & Resorts gives guests a $5 food and drink voucher or 500 Starwood points for every day they decline housekeeping's services (except departure day).

Part of the Kimpton culture

Some hotels are making green cool.

It seems to be an easier sell for hip, higher-end chains like Kimpton Hotel & Restaurant Group's properties, which cultivate an edgier base of customers. About 85% of hotel guests participate in the chain's towel and sheet reuse program, said Mike DeFrino, Kimpton's executive vice president of hotel operations.

Bill Kimpton started the boutique hotel chain by rehabbing older buildings and turning them into hotels. Although Kimpton died in 2001, the company that bears his name still has the reputation he cultivated. Most locations welcome guests to mingle at a lobby cocktail hour, lounge in their animal-print robes and bring their pets on their stay. And many locations will lend guests a goldfish as part of the Guppy Love program.

"I think our guests expect us to push the envelope and try things that are different than what the mass-appeal hotels are doing," DeFrino said.

DeFrino's convinced that some guests don't actually mean to ask for new towels but are much like his teenage daughter, who tosses her towels on the floor at home for no good reason. "Once it's on the floor, you're going to get a clean towel," he said. (Hotel guests, not his daughter.)

The pressure on a mid-priced chain

It's trickier for other hotel chains, where sustainability isn't necessarily part of the appeal to the customer.

The mid-priced chains are competing for a more price-sensitive business and leisure traveler. Hampton Inn, which offers a hot breakfast at its nearly 1,900 company-owned and franchise locations across the country, has two environmentally friendly options for disposable plates, bowls and cutlery: 100% biodegradable Enviroware or Taterware, a resin material made from potato starch.

The chain's takeout coffee cup sleeves are made from 100% recycled fiber, and the towel reuse program simply asks customers using a door hanger to "reuse or replace" towels. No big deal either way, the sign suggests.

"We're delivering these messages in a light-hearted way. ... It's not preachy or paternalistic," said Jennifer Silberman, vice president of corporate responsibility for Hilton Worldwide, which owns Hampton.

More happens behind the scenes at Hampton, which benefits from LightStay, Hilton's company-wide sustainability system that tracks the sustainability of 200 operational practices at nearly 3,900 properties around the world. Hilton has saved more than $147 million since 2008 through efficiency projects, including reporting through LightStay, Silberman said.

Satisfying the luxury guest

You'd think environmental sustainability programs would hit a roadblock with luxury guests, who want the best of everything. Not so, said Sue Stephenson, vice president of Ritz-Carlton's Community Footprints, the chain's social and environmental responsibility program.

"It in no way diminishes the luxury experience," Stephenson said. "We still have the best towels, linens and amenities."

Many Ritz-Carlton guests now use the same sheets two nights in a row (introduced in 2011) and hang up their towels to use another day (introduced in 2009).

"We've not had a single negative guest comment but have certainly had positive guest comments," Stephenson said. "Guests want to see we're doing the right thing."

It helps that the onus is really on the business to be responsible in its construction, hotel operations, food service and landscaping, she said. "The majority of what can be done for the environment is what we can do as a business," Stephenson said.

No matter the price point, no hotelier can afford to lose a guest because he or she doesn't like the way a hotel communicates its message.

Even Kimpton's DeFrino said the boutique chain won't roll out an environmental initiative if tests show that customers don't like it. But in Kimpton's case, DeFrino found that guests approve of their efforts.

"Our guest satisfaction has improved since our green initiatives were introduced, and it's given us confidence that efforts have not deteriorated the guest experience," he said.

The tide may be turning

It's possible that younger people used to recycling and saving water will bring those attitudes into their hotel stays as they age. Ritz-Carlton's Stephenson sees children leading their parents into caring about the environment on their hotel stays.

Betting that more and more consumers want to choose environmentally friendly hotels right now, travel website TripAdvisor is launching its GreenLeaders program this year to let travelers know which hotels have sustainable practices.

About 71% of travelers reported that they planned to choose hotels based on sustainability over the next year, compared with 65% in the previous survey, according to an April 2012 Trip Advisor survey.

Yet while 81% of hotels have some green programs, almost a quarter don't communicate that fact to their guests, said TripAdvisor spokeswoman Alison Croyle.

The website is accepting applications from hotels to qualify for a "GreenLeader" or "GreenPartner" label on the TripAdvisor site based on their sustainable practices. The program will rely on traveler feedback, and any discrepancies could trigger an independent audit of the hotel.

That's information that Genevieve Hein, 33, who always hangs up her towels at hotels to reuse them the next day, would enjoy having.

"Trying to limit my impact on the environment makes me feel good," said Hein, assistant director of residence life at Sarah Lawrence College in New York.

"When I go against my green principles for the sake of convenience or to go with the flow, I feel bad about myself and guilty. I can't imagine how those feelings would enhance my vacation, which is supposed to be all about feeling good."

Do you like to participate in a hotel's sustainable programs, or do they irritate you? Please share your thoughts in the comments section below.

 

What women want: Hotels look to cater for more female business travelers

Posted by Heru Nusantara on March 10, 2013 at 10:00 AM Comments comments (1)

By Daisy Carrington

what women wants photo 130306230939-business-hotel-woman-story-top_zps3b8e9977.jpg

Women are nearing half of all business travelers, with many more coming from China


(CNN) -- Hotels are working overtime to accommodate the needs of one of the fastest growing demographics in the travel industry: businesswomen.

"Women are nearing half of all business travelers, and they make up 85% of purchase choices in the household," says Carolyn Pearson, the founder of Maiden-Voyage.com, a website that connects female business travelers across the globe and rates femme-friendly hotel brands.

"A woman might choose a hotel for business travel and then, if she likes it, go back for a weekend stay, or book the room again with the family. Hotels are starting to realize that when it comes to travel decisions, women are really influential."

Pearson also trains hotels to look at their service from a female perspective, enabling them to tweak what they offer to appeal more to women.

"We take the entire hotel staff -- from concierge to food and beverage -- and really get them to see their hotel through a woman's eyes. We identify two things: how can they improve her experience, and how can they create more loyalty and value so that she's more likely to return," she explains.

Maiden Voyage's rankings are based not simply on amenities but also on a hotel's discretion and safety.

"Does the receptionist announce the room numbers out loud?" says Pearson. "Are the rooms located next to the lifts?"

The Sofitel Le Grand Ducal, Luxembourg, for instance, receives high marks because of its low-risk location, 24/7 manned reception, on-site secure parking, room service delivered by female staff, as well as for its high-powered hair dryers and Hermes toiletries.

"There are differences between what men and women need," says Judi Brownell, professor and dean of students at the School of Hotel Administration at Cornell University.

"Most women are more particular than their male counterparts. Both are concerned with safety and comfort but these things make more of a difference to women travelers. They want to feel that hotels have taken into consideration their needs as women, and so appreciate the small things that are done to make then feel recognized."

They Hyatt hotel group has spent the last 18 months surveying guests in 40 facilitated group discussions around the world on how they can improve their services. It was the largest guest listening exercise ever conducted by the brand, and it was made up completely of women.

"We've found that approximately 80% of all business travel decisions are made by females," notes Kristine Rose, Hyatt's senior vice president of brands.

"Whether it's a family trip, and mom is deciding what hotel to stay in, or it's a travel agent -- most of whom happen to be female. There's a rise of female travel globally, especially in China, where more and more women are traveling every day."

Based on the feedback of their female contingent, Hyatt rolled out a number of innovative amenities across all its brands (over 500 locations worldwide), including adding the dermatologist-approved KenetMD Skin Care line to their list of bath amenities.

It also introduced the "Hyatt Has It" program whereby Hyatt hotels stock everything and anything a traveler might have forgotten to pack, from deodorant to humidifiers (and every color of nail polish under the sun).

Guests can borrow these items free of charge, or purchase them at retail value. Though the initiative benefits all guests, regardless of gender, Rose says the program was inspired by the survey responses of their women travelers.

"When we talked to some women, they were very vocal about not being perfect all the time. They said, 'I forget things, I don't always want to worry about whether I packed shampoo or conditioner.'"

This sort of catered service seems to have replaced the trend of "female-only" floors that surfaced in the hospitality industry last year. Some hotels maintain a single-sex block of rooms. The Georgian Court Hotel in Vancouver, for instance, has the Orchid Floor, a group of 18 rooms stocked with Aveda products, complimentary fashion magazines and the type of gadgets that supposedly speak to a woman's heart, such as curling irons and hair straighteners.

Some hotels that originally instated single-sex units have since done away with them. Don Shula Hotel in Florida was one of the first hotels to introduce the concept back in 2006. Their Patrician Rooms had enlarged makeup mirrors, women's magazines and breast exam cards in the showers. During renovations last year, the hotel decided their occupancy was too low to justify their continuance.

"They served their purpose a few years back but simply lost their luster over time," admits Lisa Gory, the hotel's director of sales and marketing.

Hyatt has also eschewed installing all-female floors.

"There's a difference between creating a tailored experience that meets their needs, and calling them out as a group of people who need special treatment. They actually consider that kind of offensive," says Rose.

 


 

 

 

 

Eat This List: 7 deadly restaurant sins that keep customers from coming back

Posted by Heru Nusantara on January 8, 2013 at 11:25 AM Comments comments (0)

 



This is the third installment of "Eat This List" - a regularly recurring list of things chefs, farmers, writers and other food experts think you ought to know about.

Yesterday, I was happily slurping away at my noodle and bok choy soup, when suddenly I felt it: sand rasping against my molars. I pushed the bowl away and swished my mouth out with a few tall glasses of water, but I was haunted by phantom gravel for the rest of the day...Read More

 


 

Paid search producing results for hoteliers

Posted by Heru Nusantara on December 19, 2012 at 8:35 AM Comments comments (0)

Paid search producing results for hoteliers

By David M. Brudney
HotelNewsNow.com columnist


Story Highlights

  • Paid search advertising is a cost-effective, high-yielding e-marketing tool that helps drive consumer Internet searchers to hotel booking engines.
  • The more hoteliers bid on keywords the more likely a link to their website will show up in a consumer’s search results.
  • Paid search also yields a billboard effect—consumers might not book immediately, but after seeing the ad they might call later to book directly.

Paid search advertising is becomingmore commonplace with hotel marketers as a cost-effective, high-yieldinge-marketing tool to help drive consumers to their respective website bookingengines.

Paid search, such as Google AdWordsand pay-per-click (PPC), is generally a tactical outlet for driving short-termbookings—a direct-response advertising tool that allows hoteliers to achievestrong potential revenue. Paid search links search guests to hotel websitebooking engines.

Paid search including AdWords isspecial, too, because of the value represented as a branding outlet, a publicrelations channel and its ability to lower distribution costs versus thirdparties.

“We haveexperienced a 20% increase in PPC year over year,” said Agnelo Fernandes, VPsales & marketing, Terranea Resort, Rancho Palos Verdes, California. 

“Since implementing an aggressivesearch marketing strategy, overall website revenue is up 50% year over year,”said Steven V. Seghers, president of Hyperdisk Marketing in Irvine, California,referring to one of his hotel clients in the San Francisco Bay Area. “(Return on investment) for paid search alone is 6-1 and 8-1, and when you addin the total spend generated from paid search it is up to 15-1.”

AdWords and PPC advertising may beused in myriad ways:

1. Special promotions to fill“need” or “opportunity” dates or periods, where empty rooms are projected.

2. “Fire sale” or “flash sale” campaigns.

3. As a “shield” for special discounts or value-adds from other packagesand price points running concurrently on online travel agencies; these specialdiscounts and/or value-adds are available only to those visitors who haveclicked on to that particular key word or phrase, thus allowing the hotel toretain rate integrity.

Paid search strengths:

1. target need periods to growoccupancy;

2. speed of measurement and flexibility to craft multiple messages toreach different markets (e.g. transient, group, social/weddings and dealbuyers); and

3. ability to tightly control budget.


How it works

Terranea’s Fernandes explained howit all works.

“Terranea devotes countless hours tosearch for keywords and phrases that best describe Terranea’s attributes. Weput ourselves in our guests’ shoes—how the guest perceives the Terraneaexperience, how can we optimize that experience?  What are those words andphrases that best define those guest experiences?”

Terranea also learns from readingguest surveys. “They tell us how the guest found us,” Fernandes adds.

The information coming out of thatresearch is then analyzed, processed and converted into the keywords and keyphrases most likely to match what Internet visitors are seeking when searchingonline for types of hotels and hotel destinations.

A sample of keywords or phrasessearchers might use: “luxury golf resort,” “Hawaiian resort destination,““Rocky Mountain resort” experiences, “close to an R&D business park” and“affordable airport location.”

Then the process of purchasing thosekeywords or phrases begins. Based on demand—some of those words/phrases aresearched more often and thus are highly coveted by hotel competitors—prices canrange from US$1 to US$2 per word up to as much as just under US$5, according toTerranea’s Fernandes.

A consumer, using Google forinstance, might type in a word or phrase that might have already been purchasedby a number of hotels. The search results will include an ad with a link to theparticular hotel’s website and booking engine. Typically, the hotel that has“outbid” its competitors for that particular word or phrase will appear first.

Hotels are using a variety offull-service sales and hotel Internet marketing agencies and online marketingconsultants (e.g., Cendyn, Sabre and Hyperdisk) to help manage, monitor andoptimize their e-commerce strategies and campaigns.


Paidsearch produces higher room rates and at less cost than OTAs

Hotel marketers interviewed disagreewith the perception that paid search produces lower room rates. On thecontrary, in many cases hotels are achieving higher average daily rates throughkeyword buy campaigns.

Hyperdisk’s Seghers has created“unique landing pages” for one or more of his hotel clients. “These pages helpdrive up conversion rates … and there is evidence to support once visitors landon those unique pages they are ‘upselling’ themselves.” 

“The cost to capture per hotel roombooking through OTAs can range as high as 25% to 35% while paid search captureis 8% to 15%,” Seghers added.

Luxury resorts, in particular, arefinding paid search to be of tremendous value.

PGA National Resort & Spa inPalm Beach Gardens, Florida, uses paid search campaigns to help drive hotelrate and sell more golf packages, according to Seghers.

“A big part of our e-commercestrategy is paid search. It works,” Fernandes said.

David Burke, VP of sales &marketing for The Breakers in Palm Beach, Florida, concurred with Fernandes.“You have to use both … PPC and AdWords.  (However) we still use The NewYork Times and a few other newspapers in winter to drive leisure business toour website or call center.”

Burke shared the story of a golferfrom Cincinnati who via paid search found his way to the Breakers’ websitebooking engine. “Historically, Cincinnati would not be a market where we wouldbe spending any advertising dollars to reach golfers looking for a luxuryresort golf experience. Online helps us reach those ‘hard-to-find’ areas hometo potential customers for us.

“Today we spend about 30% to 35% ofour advertising budget on search engine optimization, paid search, PPC anddisplay advertising. A few years ago we were spending only 15% to 20%,” Burkesaid. 

Fernandes predicts within two tothree years Terranea’s e-marketing will grow to 50% of its total sales &marketing advertising budget.


Lookingbeyond the initial ROI metrics

AdWords and PPC are not getting thefull credit they deserve, Seghers said.

“Too many hoteliers focus too muchon paid search ROI for reservations booked exclusively online—actual bookingtransactions on the property website’s booking engine. They fail to credit allof the ‘website lookers’ and ‘website buyers’ who wind up calling the hotel.”

Some visitors to a hotel website’sbooking engine, Seghers pointed out, wait until later to book the actualreservations, often preferring to call the hotel directly or the hotel’s callcenter.

“We’ve created and integrated adistinct tracking system for our client PGA National Resort & Spa thatrecords how many guests—those who originally found the hotel website’s bookingengine via paid search—made reservations by calling direct. One-third of allbookings (with origins from paid search) come from phone calls,” adds Seghers.


Paidsearch checklist

Here’s a paid search “real” valuechecklist:

  • Total web bookings
  • Web growth statistics (visitors, traffic counts, geographical origins)
  • Call volume and inbound salesOrganic search & SEO
  • Bookings made via call center or hotel direct
  • Initiating dialogue (creating fewer opportunities for “public” critical reviews)
  • E-mail capturing
  • Brand strengthening, building and growth versus comp set
  • Public relations channel
  • Growing loyalty with new guests (retain the customer for life!)
  • Lead generation
  • Referrals (from partners & alliances, chambers of commerce, convention & visitor bureaus/destination marketing organizations and hotel management company inventories)

Seghers advises his clients to keepa balance between paid search and other electronic and print advertising andpublic relations. 

 

Competency Standards for the Hotel and Restaurant in Indonesia

Posted by Heru Nusantara on December 17, 2012 at 2:20 AM Comments comments (0)


 

 
Under the auspices of the Indonesian Australia Partnership for Skills Development Program, AusAID has funded the development of competency standards for the hotel and restaurant industry in Indonesia.
After extensive consultation with major Indonesian hotel and restaurant industry stakeholders, Perhimpunan Hotel dan Restoran Indonesia (PHRI) developed a benchmark set of standards for the industry in Indonesia. The following units of competency are based jointly on those of PHRI and the most recent Australian competencies. The standards have been circulated widely to senior personnel representative of all the relevant industry sectors and feedback has been obtained trough a range of methods including focus groups and official project committees.

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Karakteristik Usaha dibidang Jasa Perhotelan

Posted by Heru Nusantara on December 12, 2012 at 9:50 PM Comments comments (0)




Karakteristik - SHIP

Usaha jasa perhotelan memiliki empat karakteristik yang khas yang menjadikan bidang jasa ini berbeda dengan bidang lainnya, untuk memudahkan mengenalinya maka digunakan singkatan SHIP yaitu;

  • Simultaneously of production & consumption ; Produksi dan konsumsi terjadi secara simultan, waktu yang tersedia untuk melakukan pengecekan kualitas produk relatif tidak tersedia. Mis., makanan harus disajikan dalam kondisi masih hangat yang diproduksi oleh bagian pengolahan makanan
  • Heterogeneous nature of product ; Sifat produk/jasa yang heterogen, berbagai vendor terlibat yang kendalinya diluar daripada manajemen. Mis., operator jasa pelayanan taxi yang dipesan melalui hotel
  • Intangibility of the product ; Berbagai produk besifat tidak tampak dan hanya bisa dirasakan oleh pelanggang. Mis., kenyamanyan, keramahtamahan
  • Perishability of the product ; Masa kadaluarsa produk. Mis., penjualan kamar yang tidak terisi pada hari yang telah terlewati, tidak akan tergantikan oleh hari lainnya